Supporters of public education say that more money is needed to improve the schools, and based upon recent polling data, they apparently have convinced the public of that. On the other hand, critics say that throwing money at the schools establishment doesn't improve student performance. Fortunately, there is a real-life experiment that proves the critics may be correct. According to a 1998 Cato Institute policy analysis (you will need Adobe Acrobat to read the entire policy analysis, but an executive summary is available), "a federal judge invited the Kansas City, Missouri, School District to come up with a cost-is-no-object educational plan and ordered local and state taxpayers to find the money to pay for it" in order "(t)o improve the education of black students and encourage desegregation." Kansas City spent as much as $11,700 per pupil (in 1998 dollars), which was more money than any of the 280 largest school districts in the county. That money bought higher teacher salaries, smaller class sizes, and such amenities as an Olympic sized pool, a zoo, and a model United Nations. However, the Cato reports, "The results were dismal, Test scores did not rise, the black-white gap did not diminish, and there was less, not more integration."